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Writing Presentations

By:   •  December 16, 2012  •  Essay  •  2,161 Words (9 Pages)  •  1,008 Views

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Writing is a way of interacting with others. It is a social activity. (SF pp. 6-13)

• Establish the purpose: To persuade? To inform? To entertain?

• The purpose should help you define your audience and how to present

• Consider the impression you will make: Are you credible? Honest? Fair?

• Use an appropriate tone. How well do you know the audience?

Stages of writing: (SF p. 6)

• Preparing

• Researching

• Planning

• Drafting

• Simmering/incubating

• Revising

• Editing

• Proofreading

In college classes, you may encounter more abstract ideas and unfamiliar words, so you should cultivate an attitude of inquiry, for example: (1) read as a believer and as a doubter; (2) assess the writer's qualifications; (3) look carefully at the evidence; (4) assess whether the evidence supports the writer's claims; (5) look for unstated assumptions; (6) take notice of contradictions; (7) look for biases; (8) be skeptical of simple solutions; (9) don't be a "black and white" thinker – be open-minded; (10) be suspicious of obvious bias; and, (11) look for what is missing. (SF "Critical Thinking")

Six questions journalists ask: (SF p. 24)

• Who?

• What?

• Where?

• When?

• Why?

• How?


Thesis – "A sentence (or two or three) that identifies the point of a paper." (SF p.30); sometimes called a "problem" statement; a declarative statement that clarifies your topic and presents your opinion; also incorporates qualifications or limitations (APA pp. 2-3).

Hypothesis – "A sentence that guides an argument or investigation" and can be proved or disproved by further examination (APA p. 3).

Objective – "A brief, well-focused statement that clearly defines the topic" (APA p. 3)

Ten Parts of the Manuscript

1.Title Page – fewer than 12 words, usually fits on one line

2. Abstract – include a brief overview, key ideas, research procedures

3. Paper

(A) Organizing a Writing Project (general): introduction, development, conclusion; from project statement to proof (SF p. 36-37, 3b).

(B) Informative or persuasive paper: introduction, body, and conclusion; (divided using headings) (APA p. 26).

(C) Research study: introduction of the problem, explanation of methodology, a summary of results, discussion of implications of the study (APA p. 26).

4. Reference list – sources used in the paper, arranged alphabetically (APA, Chapter 4)

5. Appendixes – supplementary information that supports the ideas in the paper

6. Author's notes - not always necessary (APA p. 30)

7. End notes – footnotes in order of appearance in the paper (APA p. 31)

8. Tables – technical data, numbered in order of appearance in the paper (APA p. 32)

9. Figure captions – a list of figure titles (APA p. 33)

10.Figures – visual elements that cannot be reproduced by typing, e.g. a company logo; numbered in order of appearance in the paper (APA p. 33)

Formatting a research paper: (SF p. 394)

• Block paragraphs – no indention, but each paragraph is separated by a space

• Standard paragraphs – indented five spaces; no spacing between paragraphs

• Do not "break" words at the end of a typed line

• Double-space all lines; you may triple or quadruple space between sections.

• Leave a one-inch margin at the left, right, top and bottom of each page.

Parts of a Research Paper (APA, p. 29):

• Introduction – a concise summary of the project or the problem.

• Literature Review – a summary that acknowledges alternative perspectives and interpretations of the topic.

• Method – describes study participants, selection procedures, materials utilized, and the process for conducting the research.

• Results – a summary of the information.

• Discussion – initially talks about the data as it relates to the original hypothesis, then the value of alternative interpretations, followed by the conclusions and ending with the significance of your research findings.

• Reference List – a list of the sources cited in the paper.

• Other sections may include – appendixes, author's notes, footnotes/endnotes, tables, figure captions and figures, but do not have to be included in every research paper.

Getting Started (APA pp. 34-36):

• Use heavy weight white bond; 8 ½ x 11 paper

• Use Times Roman font; 12 point; (SF p. 395-396)

• Use italics instead of underlining throughout the paper

• Double space everything (including the abstract)

• Leave a one-inch margin at the left, right, top and bottom of each page

• Do not justify the right (leave "ragged")

• Indent paragraphs by 5 spaces, using the "Tab" feature for unanimity

• Insert a "running head" on the title page ½ inch from the top of the page in the upper right. The first copy would start two spaces below.

• Use a page header – a brief version of the "running head" (usually 2-3 words) followed by 5 spaces and a page number on each subsequent page, including the abstract page.

• A period at the end of a sentence is followed by one space.

Some resources - Using an outline to get organized:

• Scott Foresman Handbook for Writers, 7th Edition, p. 47 (Chart 3.1)

• On your computer (WORD Program) go to "View", then to "Outline"

• Descriptive outline – (meaning + function) first, write a "says" sentence (one sentence summary or main point), then write a "does" sentence (a one sentence summary of what the author is trying to accomplish with the reader) for each paragraph.

Formal Outline; (APA p. 20)

1. Major topics – I, II, III, IV

2. Sub-divisions – A, B, C

3. Clarifications – 1,2,3

4. Details – a,b,c

• Use parallel form throughout, e.g. use the same verb tense

• Use one idea per listing

• Include two entries at each sub-level

SOPPADA Framework: (persuasive)

Subject: (What do you plan to do/accomplish?)

Objectives: (What do you hope to do/accomplish?)

Present Situation: (Describe the current issues or problems.)

Proposal: (What would improve the present situation? How do you plan to fund the project? How will the project be managed?)

Advantages: (What improvements will result from the implementation of this project?)

Disadvantages: (What are the negatives to implementing the project?) Name two and use "however" to explain.)

Agreement: (What do you need to move forward? What are the time parameters? Who must approve the project - or give the go-ahead and how should notice be given?)


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