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Sociology 101 - Study Guide

By:   •  December 8, 2018  •  Study Guide  •  1,368 Words (6 Pages)  •  154 Views

Page 1 of 6

 

Authority-Authority is like domination (it is domination)- the chance of commands being obeyed

Legitimate- Recognized as okay, and justified by both the dominator and dominated; consent of the ruled to be ruled

 

Legal Authority- domination or authority based on the belief in the legitimacy of a written set of rules and laws

Obedience is owed to the rules

Separation of person and office

Traditional authority- domination of authority on the belief in the legitimacy of traditions; example: monarchs/chiefs

Charismatic Authority- authority based on the belief of the legitimation of a person who is believed to have extraordinary power

*cult of personality

*based on individualistic influence

Examples:

Hitler, Trump, Mao

 

Bureaucracy Characteristics (this is a form of an ideal type---- )

  • Rigid division of labor (specific job and nothing else; jobs that depend on one another )
  • Hierarchal (Chain of command)
  • Authority based on written rules
  • Rules (official) are neutral
  • Officials are experts + qualified + trained

 

Dehumanize

  • Office matters; person does not
  • Purely rational (no emotion)
  • Ironed cage of bureaucracy

 

How to destroy:

  • Most difficult + effective
  • Large & Powerful
  • Person do + is separate from office

 

Compare Marx and Weber?

**Inequality-

  • Marx-Class (Class Conflict)- Own the means of production
  • Weber-Class and Status/Party---
  • 2 Class of division: own and do not own means of production; however, there are different within each class situation

  

**Capitalism----

  • Weber--- born into Capitalism--
  • Marx--- we create capitalism

Final Study Session Day 2

Durkheim--- Mechanical Solidarity

   Organic solidarity

Social Inequality based on natural inequalities = strong solidarity

External Inequality based on natural = weak solidarity

 

Weber- to study society we have to understand the subjective meaning of action

 

Social Action- 4 types of ideals types

  • Instrumental Rational Actions- Analyze the means and ends; systematic pursue of profit
  • Value Rational Actions- Ethics
  • Affectual Rational- Emotions
  • Traditional Actions- Habit

 

 

 

Spirit of Capitalism

Ideas and attitudes that favor the pursuit of financial profit

The duty/pursue to make more money

 

Protestant Ethic: A calling to make money (Calling through God to make more money)

Money represents the person’s value

Protestant Ethic – God = Spirit of Capitalism

 

Modern Capitalism: Why does the spirit of capitalism have to do with modern capital?

  1. Rational LAW- The state applying the law to everyone/stable environment to do business
  2. Technical use of Science- (for the market;)
  3. Spirit of Capitalism

 

Authority/Domination=Chances that a command will be obeyed *the likelihood that a command will be obeyed

  

What is legal authority?

  • Domination based on the belief on the legitimacy of written rules/laws
  • Separation of person from office
  • Obedience to the rules

 

What  traditional authority?

  • Domination based on the belief on the legitimacy of traditions --->  
  • There is no separation between person and office (means of production=office)
  • Obey people not rules

 

What is Charismatic authority?

  • Extraordinary attributes about this person

Compare and Contrast legal and traditional authority.

 

 

(Week 8)

Class Situation- Set of people that have a common factor that shapes their life chances within the market

Weber calls the class situation= people who own the means of production and people who do not

 

Within these class situations there are differences.

Complexity in situations… different roles within each class *Life Chances within the market

 

Life Chances- the probability that you get what you want in life

 

The state as a type of political organization

 

Status Groups- social class… worth of the group

 

Class is based in the market

Status is based in honor

 

 

Reading Assignment #6  

Quote 2: “bureaucracy develops the more perfectly, the more it is “dehumanized,” the more completely it succeeds in elimination from official business love, hatred, and all purely personal, irrational, and emotional elements which escape calculation”

Bureaucracy are purely rational; people are irrational/ have emotions….

Because the person does not matter; the office matter…

Person follows and execute the rules weather they like it or not.. Feelings/Emotions of the individual person do not matter

*Rules are more important than ethics,

People are replaceable because they have the same training

 

  • Quote 1“Even less…would we maintain that the continued existence of today’s capitalism is conditional on the subjective acquisition of these ethical maxims by its individual bearers...Today’s capitalist economic order is a monstrous cosmos, into which the individual is born and which in practice is for him…simply a given, an immutable shell, in which he is obliged to live (Weber 1905, p. 13).

 

  • In today capitalism--- once capitalism is established it does not require individuals to have the spirit of capitalism ***No alternative to Capitalism
  • People become to a machine=dehumanization

 

  • Bureaucracy=Purely Rational; no human emotion
  • Person in office; person's emotions do not matter

Example of Domination in my own life….

 

Durkheim

Methods:

  • Social Facts according to
  • Sociology as a natural science (Objective)
  • Grand theories/grand narratives of history

Mechanical Solidarity- based on similarities and collective consciousness        (Segmentary- societies rely on it)

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